Twofish Encryption and Decryption in Java

TwoFish cryptographic algorithm is a symmetric key block cipher which was one of the finalists in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) competition, but not able to be selected as the standard.

It is an improvement over the Blowfish algorithm and is known for its simplicity and efficiency. In this guide, we’ll explore the key concepts behind the Two Fish algorithm and provide an example implementation in Java.

Understanding the Two Fish Algorithm

  1. Key Generation: The Two Fish algorithm uses a variable-length key ranging from 1 to 256 bits. The key is expanded using a key-dependent S-box and a fixed initialization vector.
  2. Block Encryption: The algorithm operates on 128-bit blocks of data. It uses a Feistel network structure with 16 rounds of encryption.
  3. Round Function: Each round of encryption involves a complex series of operations, including key mixing, substitution-permutation, and linear mixing.
  4. Decryption: Decryption in Two Fish is the reverse of encryption, with the same key used in reverse order.

Major Features and Security Advantages of twofish

  1. Security: TwoFish is known for its strong security features, including resistance to differential and linear cryptanalysis, which are common attack methods against block ciphers.
  2. Flexibility: It supports key sizes of up to 256 bits, making it adaptable to various security requirements and providing a high level of key strength.
  3. Performance: TwoFish is designed for efficient implementation in both software and hardware, offering good performance without sacrificing security.
  4. Versatility: It can be used in various modes of operation, such as Electronic Codebook (ECB), Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), Counter (CTR), and others, providing flexibility in usage.

Two fish symmetric algorithm in java

import javax.crypto.Cipher;

import javax.crypto.KeyGenerator;

import javax.crypto.SecretKey;

import java.util.Base64;

public class TwofishEncryptionExample {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

        // Generate a secret key for Twofish encryption

        KeyGenerator keyGenerator = KeyGenerator.getInstance("Twofish");

        SecretKey secretKey = keyGenerator.generateKey();

        // Create a Twofish cipher instance

        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("Twofish");

        // Initialize the cipher for encryption using the secret key

        cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, secretKey);

        // Plaintext to be encrypted

        String plaintext = "Hello, Twofish Encryption!";

        // Encrypt the plaintext

        byte[] encryptedBytes = cipher.doFinal(plaintext.getBytes());

        // Encode the encrypted bytes to Base64 for readability

        String encryptedText = Base64.getEncoder().encodeToString(encryptedBytes);

        System.out.println("Encrypted Text (Twofish): " + encryptedText);

        // Initialize the cipher for decryption using the same secret key

        cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, secretKey);

        // Decrypt the encrypted bytes

        byte[] decryptedBytes = cipher.doFinal(Base64.getDecoder().decode(encryptedText));

        // Convert the decrypted bytes back to plaintext

        String decryptedText = new String(decryptedBytes);

        System.out.println("Decrypted Text (Twofish): " + decryptedText);



In this example:

  • We generate a secret key for Twofish encryption using KeyGenerator.
  • Create a Twofish cipher instance and initialize it for encryption using the secret key.
  • Encrypt the plaintext “Hello, Twofish Encryption!” using cipher.doFinal().
  • Encode the encrypted bytes to Base64 for better display.
  • Initialize the cipher for decryption using the same secret key and decrypt the encrypted text back to plaintext.

Two Fish Demo in java

Comparison twofish algorithm with Other Symmetric Encryption Algorithms

Compared to other symmetric encryption algorithms such as AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and DES (Data Encryption Standard), TwoFish has following advantages:

  1. Security: While AES is widely adopted as the standard for symmetric encryption and is highly secure, TwoFish provides an alternative with similar security guarantees and resistance to attacks.
  2. Key Size: TwoFish supports larger key sizes compared to DES, which enhances its resistance to brute-force attacks and increases the complexity of cryptanalysis.
  3. Flexibility: Unlike DES, which has a fixed block size of 64 bits, TwoFish allows for variable block sizes, which can be advantageous in certain applications.
  4. Performance: TwoFish’s efficient design enables competitive performance with other modern encryption algorithms, ensuring that encryption and decryption operations can be carried out efficiently.
The Two Fish algorithm is a strong and efficient encryption algorithm suitable for a wide range of applications. Its simplicity and speed make it a popular choice for securing data in transit or at rest. By understanding its key concepts and implementing it in Java, you can leverage its capabilities in your own projects.

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